General Energy

  1. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Annual Energy Review (AER) 2020.
  2. U.S. EIA Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2020.
  3. Vox. “The key to tackling climate change: electrify everything.” Oct. 27, 2017.
  4. U.S. EIA 2019–Primary Energy used for electricity generation.
  5. U.S EIA 2018—site electricity used.
  6. U.S. EIA. Mechanical Fraction = all 2018 U.S. generation less non-utility PV and utility PV from



  1. Mu Cao, Ding-Bang Xiong, Li Yang, Shuaishuai Li, Yiqun Xie, Qiang Guo, Zhiqiang Li, Horst Adams, Jiajun Gu, Tongxiang Fan, Xiaohui Zhang, and Di Zhang “Ultrahigh Electrical Conductivity of Graphene Embedded in Metals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 2019, 29, 1806792 DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201806792
  2. Kappagantula, K. et al. October, 2020.
  3. Subramanian C., et al. “One-hundred-fold increase in current carrying capacity in a carbon nanotube–copper composite” Nat. Comm. 4 2202 [DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3202 |]. Jul 23, 2013
  4. Bystricky P., Lashmore D., Kalus-Bystricky I. “Metal matrix composite comprising nanotubes and methods of producing same” IPN: WO2018/126191 A1 p.1. Jul 5, 2018.
  5. (Balu) Balachandran, “High-Performance Electrical and Thermal Conductors” U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Virtual Program Peer Review Meeting, June 2-3, 2020. .



  1. De Martini, P., 2012, Future of U.S. Electric Distribution,
  2. U.S. DOE, Quadrennial Technology Review 2015, Chapter 3: Enabling Modernization of the Electric Power System,
  3. U.S. DOE, Office of Electricity, 2020, Transformer Resilience and Advanced Components (TRAC) Program Vision and Framework,
  4. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Rural Utilities Service, Electric Staff Division, 2009, Design Manual for High Voltage Transmission Lines,
  5. Balser, A., et al., 2012, Effective Grid Utilization: A Technical Assessment and Application Guide,
  6. MISO, Transmission Cost Estimation Guide,
  7. Socariceanu M., An X., Deighton A., Friday A. “Corrosion assessment of aluminum conductor for medium voltage cables for Subsea umbilical system” Proceedings of the International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering – OMAE v. 5, 2018.
  8. Goetzler, M. Guernsey, J. Young, 2015, Research & Development Opportunities for Joining Technologies in HVAC&R;
  9. Goetzler, M. Guernsey, and J. Young, 2014, Research & Development Roadmap for Emerging HVAC Technologies;
  10. Khan M. G. and Fartaj A., 2011, A review on microchannel heat exchangers and potential applications. Int. J. Energy Res., 35: 553–582;
  11. Tsekmes I.A., Kochetov R., Morshuis P.H.F., Smit J.J., Thermal Conductivity of Polymeric Composites: A Review, 2013 IEEE International Conference on Solid Dielectrics, Bologna, Italy, June 30 – July 4, 2013. ISBN 978-1-4673-4459-3, IEEE Catalog number: CFP13ICS-USB;
  12. Rupprecht L., Conductive Polymers and Plastics in Industrial Applications, Plastics Design Library, Norwich, NY, 1999;
  13. Tekinalp, H., Kunc, V., Velez-Garcia, G., Duty, C., Love, L., Naskar, A., Blue, C. and Ozcan, S., Highly oriented carbon fiber-polymer composites via additive manufacturing, Composites Science and Technology, vol. 105, pp. 144-150, 2014;
  14. U.S. DOE. Thermal Energy Storage for Space Cooling, DOE/EE-0241, (
  15. US Motors 2015 website.,of%20industrial%20production%20electrical%20energy.
  16. U.S. DOE\EIA 2019.
  17. U.S. DOE\EERE\BTO 2020. Motor Energy Savings Potential Report.
  18. U.S. DOE\EERE\WETO 2017. .
  19. U.S. DOE. Solar Energy Technologies Office Photovoltaics Research:
  20. U.S. DOE. GeoVision: Harnessing the Heat Beneath our Feet, Geothermal Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy,
  21. U.S. DOE. VTO EV Page